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GROUND - Definiția din dicționar

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ground (ground), n. [OE. ground, grund, AS. grund; akin to D. grond, OS., G., Sw., & Dan. grund, Icel. grunnr bottom, Goth. grundus (in composition); perh. orig. meaning, dust, gravel, and if so perh. akin to E. grind.] 1. The surface of the earth; the outer crust of the globe, or some indefinite portion of it.
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There was not a man to till the ground. Gen. ii. 5.
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The fire ran along upon the ground. Ex. ix. 23.

Hence: A floor or pavement supposed to rest upon the earth.
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2. Any definite portion of the earth's surface; region; territory; country. Hence: A territory appropriated to, or resorted to, for a particular purpose; the field or place of action; as, a hunting or fishing ground; a play ground.
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From . . . old Euphrates, to the brook that parts Egypt from Syrian ground. Milton.
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3. Land; estate; possession; field; esp. (pl.), the gardens, lawns, fields, etc., belonging to a homestead; as, the grounds of the estate are well kept.
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Thy next design is on thy neighbor's grounds. Dryden. 4.
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4. The basis on which anything rests; foundation. Hence: The foundation of knowledge, belief, or conviction; a premise, reason, or datum; ultimate or first principle; cause of existence or occurrence; originating force or agency; as, the ground of my hope.
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5. (Paint. & Decorative Art) (a) That surface upon which the figures of a composition are set, and which relieves them by its plainness, being either of one tint or of tints but slightly contrasted with one another; as, crimson Bowers on a white ground. See Background, Foreground, and Middle-ground. (b) In sculpture, a flat surface upon which figures are raised in relief. (c) In point lace, the net of small meshes upon which the embroidered pattern is applied; as, Brussels ground. See Brussels lace, under Brussels.
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6. (Etching) A gummy composition spread over the surface of a metal to be etched, to prevent the acid from eating except where an opening is made by the needle.
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7. (Arch.) One of the pieces of wood, flush with the plastering, to which moldings, etc., are attached; -- usually in the plural.
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&hand_; Grounds are usually put up first and the plastering floated flush with them.
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8. (Mus.) (a) A composition in which the bass, consisting of a few bars of independent notes, is continually repeated to a varying melody. (b) The tune on which descants are raised; the plain song. Moore (Encyc.).
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On that ground I'll build a holy descant. Shak.
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9. (Elec.) A conducting connection with the earth, whereby the earth is made part of an electrical circuit.
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10. pl. Sediment at the bottom of liquors or liquids; dregs; lees; feces; as, coffee grounds.
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11. The pit of a theater. [Obs.] B. Jonson.
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Ground angling, angling with a weighted line without a float. -- Ground annual (Scots Law), an estate created in land by a vassal who instead of selling his land outright reserves an annual ground rent, which becomes a perpetual charge upon the land. -- Ground ash. (Bot.) See Groutweed. -- Ground bailiff (Mining), a superintendent of mines. Simmonds. -- Ground bait, bits of bread, boiled barley or worms, etc., thrown into the water to collect the fish, Wallon. -- Ground bass or Ground base (Mus.), fundamental base; a fundamental base continually repeated to a varied melody. -- Ground beetle (Zo&ö;l.), one of numerous species of carnivorous beetles of the family Carabidæ, living mostly in burrows or under stones, etc. -- Ground chamber, a room on the ground floor. -- Ground cherry. (Bot.) (a) A genus (Physalis) of herbaceous plants having an inflated calyx for a seed pod: esp., the strawberry tomato (Physalis Alkekengi). See Alkekengl. (b) A European shrub (Prunus Chamæcerasus), with small, very acid fruit. -- Ground cuckoo. (Zo&ö;l.) See Chaparral cock. -- Ground cypress. (Bot.) See Lavender cotton. -- Ground dove (Zo&ö;l.), one of several small American pigeons of the genus Columbigallina, esp. C. passerina of the Southern United States, Mexico, etc. They live chiefly on the ground. -- Ground fish (Zo&ö;l.), any fish which constantly lives on the botton of the sea, as the sole, turbot, halibut. -- Ground floor, the floor of a house most nearly on a level with the ground; -- called also in America, but not in England, the first floor. -- Ground form (Gram.), the stem or basis of a word, to which the other parts are added in declension or conjugation. It is sometimes, but not always, the same as the root. -- Ground furze (Bot.), a low slightly thorny, leguminous shrub (Ononis arvensis) of Europe and Central Asia,; -- called also rest-harrow. -- Ground game, hares, rabbits, etc., as distinguished from winged game. -- Ground hele (Bot.), a perennial herb (Veronica officinalis) with small blue flowers, common in Europe and America, formerly thought to have curative properties. -- Ground of the heavens (Astron.), the surface of any part of the celestial sphere upon which the stars may be regarded as projected. -- Ground hemlock (Bot.), the yew (Taxus baccata var. Canadensisi) of eastern North America, distinguished from that of Europe by its low, straggling stems. -- Ground hog. (Zo&ö;l.) (a) The woodchuck or American marmot (Arctomys monax). See Woodchuck. (b) The aardvark. -- Ground hold (Naut.), ground tackle. [Obs.] Spenser. -- Ground ice, ice formed at the bottom of a body of water before it forms on the surface. -- Ground ivy. (Bot.) A trailing plant; alehoof. See Gill. -- Ground joist, a joist for a basement or ground floor; a. sleeper. -- Ground lark (Zo&ö;l.), the European pipit. See Pipit. -- Ground laurel (Bot.). See Trailing arbutus, under Arbutus. -- Ground line (Descriptive Geom.), the line of intersection of the horizontal and vertical planes of projection. -- Ground liverwort (Bot.), a flowerless plant with a broad flat forking thallus and the fruit raised on peduncled and radiated receptacles (Marchantia polymorpha). -- Ground mail, in Scotland, the fee paid for interment in a churchyard. -- Ground mass (Geol.), the fine-grained or glassy base of a rock, in which distinct crystals of its constituents are embedded. -- Ground parrakeet (Zo&ö;l.), one of several Australian parrakeets, of the genera Callipsittacus and Geopsittacus, which live mainly upon the ground. -- Ground pearl (Zo&ö;l.), an insect of the family Coccidæ (Margarodes formicarum), found in ants' nests in the Bahamas, and having a shelly covering. They are strung like beads, and made into necklaces by the natives. -- Ground pig (Zo&ö;l.), a large, burrowing, African rodent (Aulacodus Swinderianus) about two feet long, allied to the porcupines but with harsh, bristly hair, and no spines; -