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A*rith"me*tic (&unr_;), n. [OE. arsmetike, OF. arismetique, L. arithmetica, fr. Gr. &unr_; (sc. &unr_;), fr. &unr_; arithmetical, fr. &unr_; to number, fr. &unr_; number, prob. fr. same root as E. arm, the idea of counting coming from that of fitting, attaching. See Arm. The modern Eng. and French forms are accommodated to the Greek.] 1. The science of numbers; the art of computation by figures.
2. A book containing the principles of this science.
Arithmetic of sines, trigonometry. -- Political arithmetic, the application of the science of numbers to problems in civil government, political economy, and social science. -- Universal arithmetic, the name given by Sir Isaac Newton to algebra.